Can Prostaglandin E2 Injection Improve Hair Growth?

Can Prostaglandin E2 Injection Improve Hair Growth?

A recent study published in experimental cell research demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates hair follicle growth. Therefore, PGE2 delivery systems could offer a novel approach to managing hair problems and may be an effective strategy for treating hair-related disorders.

Study: Enhancement of hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells by prostaglandin E2 collagen matrix.  Image Credit: DimaBerlin / Shutterstock
To study: Enhancement of hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells by prostaglandin E2 collagen matrix. Image Credit: DimaBerlin / Shutterstock

Background

Hair loss is a common condition that affects people of all ages. Considering that physical aesthetics is an important part of a person’s personality and hair plays an important role in projecting physical aesthetics, hair determines a person’s identity. Therefore, hair loss can significantly affect a person’s mental well-being and quality of life.

Hair loss can be of several types, collectively referred to as “alopecia”. Alopecia can be triggered by various factors and has been categorized as: telogen effluvium, loose anagen hair syndrome, monilethrix, alopecia areata, and chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

There has been extensive research on hair regrowth for hair homeostasis, from basic experiments to clinical trials. Current and emerging hair loss treatments include: finasteride, minoxidil, natural supplements, microneedling, low-level laser light, platelet-rich plasma, fractionated lasers, cell therapy, and topical prostaglandins. Novel approaches to treating hair loss (HL) include hair tissue engineering and stem cell therapy.

Prostaglandins are molecular lipid signals derived from arachidonic acid (AA) produced by the lysis of prostaglandin synthase. The molecular structure of PGE2 mediates numerous physiological or pathological processes and mediates fever, pain, and inflammation.

Numerous factors are responsible for regulating hair growth and differentiation; one of these is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Experimental studies have shown that PGE2 therapy can prevent radiation-induced baldness in mice.

Therapies that help increase PGE2 levels are minoxidil, castor oil, and omeprazole. The present study examined the impact of matrix PGE2 on hair growth and hair follicle regulation.

The study

This experimental study involved the design of a PGE2 matrix that conferred positive effects on hair follicle growth in the early anagen phase. The PGE2 matrix was injected subcutaneously into a mouse model of hair loss to assess hair gain.

In addition, the fluctuations of two hair follicle stem cell markers: Lgr5 and Sox9, and several hair growth regulators were also investigated.

Here, a PGE2-releasing collagen matrix was synthesized. To prevent the rapid breakdown of PGE2 molecules live, the PGE2 matrix was created by conjugating PGE2 with collagen using crosslinkers. Under various PGE2 matrix treatments, hair follicle morphology, expression of hair follicle stem cell markers, and major regulators of the hair growth cycle were investigated.

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In this study, the properties of the designed PGE2 matrix were first investigated. Different concentrations of PGE2 matrix were then injected subcutaneously into the mouse model.

The results showed that the PGE2 matrix could make the transition in the place from liquid to gel at normal body temperatures depending on its storage modulus and rheological analysis. The synthesized PGE2 matrix promoted hair follicle development in the early anagen phase.

In particular, excessive concentrations of PGE2 led to lower hair coverage rates. When collecting PGE2 matrix injection skin tissue sites, a higher proportion of developing hair follicles were found at PGE2 injection sites relative to control sites. Furthermore, PGE2 treatment led to increased cell proliferation in the new hair bulbs. Furthermore, sites with PGE2 matrix injection showed a higher proportion of developing hair follicles.

Furthermore, variations in the expressions of two hair follicle stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Sox9) and some regulators during the hair growth cycle were investigated. PGE2 could stimulate hair follicle growth by enhancing the number of hair follicle stem cells (HFSC), such as Sox9+ and Lgr5+ cells. Furthermore, new hair follicles with gradually formed outer root sheath structures comprised more Sox9+.

High bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in telogen is known to prevent hair follicle stem cell activation. The accentuated impact of matrix PGE2 on hair follicles was accompanied by a reduction of BMP2, especially in the early hair cycle, and activation of beta-catenin.

conclusion

Therefore, the PGE2 matrix could be a potential therapeutic modality for hair growth during the early anagen stage. However, further investigation into the efficacy of PGE2 matrix injection in treating hair loss and ensuring hair growth during the early anagen stage is warranted.

A PGE2 delivery system was shown to be an effective therapeutic approach in treating hair problems in the future.

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